Elemental Chlorine Free. Paper pulp bleached without the use of elemental chlorine but instead using some chlorine dioxide, along with non-chlorine agents such as oxygen. Pulps using ECF methods contain up to 0.5kg of AOX per tonne of air-dried pulp.
The percent extension produced in a tensile test.
Eco-Management and Audit Scheme. The European Union's regulated environmental management system. Similar to ISO14001 but also requires public reporting. See www.ec.europa.eu/environment/emas
The overall design or pattern impressed in paper when passed between metal rolls engraved with the desired pattern. Produced on a special embossing machine after the paper has dried to create finishes such as linen.
Environmental Management System. A business process that ensures that environmental matters are addressed through a documented system.
Output protected by sealing usually with a clear laminate on both sides and with an edge seal, so that no area is exposed to moisture.
Fuels such as coal, gas, oil, peat, bio-fuels (such as bark) or electricity generated by a combined heat and power unit or bought in from the grid. The source of energy can influence the air emissions - i.e. coal produces higher emissions than gas.
Encapsulated PostScript. A file format usually containing object graphics. Also facilitates the exchange of PostScript graphic files between applications.
EU Eco-label (The Flower)
European Union scheme to promote 'green' products, including paper. It uses a stringent life cycle analysis to identify where a product might harm the environment (manufacture, distribution, disposal etc.) taking into account various factors such as energy usage and emissions. Relatively rare for paper products. See: www.ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel
Eugropa Recycled Mark
Similar to the NAPM scheme but only requires 50% of fibre to be recycled. For use Europe-wide but the uptake has been limited.
The increased growth of organisms in water, which can be caused by the presence of easily degradable organic matter or nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen.